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Engagement, Peer Production, and the Learning Healthcare System

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

Physicians deliver about half of indicated care, and patients do about half of what it takes to stay healthy, despite the best intentions and tireless efforts of both physicians and patients. The learning healthcare system (LHS) has been proposed as a solution. As envisioned by the Institute of Medicine, an LHS would “generate and apply the best evidence for the collaborative healthcare choices of each patient and provider, drive the process of discovery as a natural outgrowth of patient care, a



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Drowning

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

Dear future self,



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Five Probiotic Drops a Day to Keep Infantile Colic Away?

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

Infantile colic is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder of early infancy characterized by long bouts of crying and hard-to-soothe behavior. On average, the crying peaks at 6 weeks of age and then diminishes by 12 weeks of age. Despite this self-resolving pattern, infantile colic has a substantial deleterious impact on society by negatively affecting parental health, resulting in decreased family functioning years later, with consultation for these issues leading to substantial health ca



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Food and Beverage Marketing in Schools Putting Student Health at the Head of the Class

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

Children and adolescents in the United States consume too many calories, including empty calories from foods and beverages high in sugar and saturated fat, placing them at risk for obesity and obesity-related diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cancer. Yet food companies continue to directly target young people with marketing for products that contribute to poor health. They spend $1.8 billion annually in youth-targeted marketing, with the promotion of fast food, sugar



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It’s the Thought That Counts

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

In 1949 the government of Finland began sending boxes to the parents of every newborn child in the country. The boxes have been given to every expectant mother in Finland since and now include clothes, diapers, a bib, and other essential supplies. The baby can even sleep in the box itself. The purpose of distributing these boxes is to encourage pregnant women to visit a physician for prenatal care, and it works. Finnish mothers seek timely prenatal care at rates exceeding 97%, among the highest



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Risk of Fever After Pediatric Trivalent Inactivated Influenza Vaccine and 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportanceAn observational study found an increased risk of febrile seizure on the day of or 1 day after vaccination (days 0-1) with trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in the 2010-2011 season; risk was highest with simultaneous vaccination with TIV and 13-valent pneumococcal vaccine (PCV13) in children who were 6 to 23 months old. Text messaging is a novel method for surveillance of adverse events after immunization that has not been used for hypothesis-driven vaccine safety research.



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A Statewide Medicaid Enhanced Prenatal Care Program Impact on Birth Outcomes

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportancePolicy makers and practitioners need rigorous evaluations of state-based Medicaid enhanced prenatal care programs that provide home visiting to guide improvements and inform future investments. Effects on adverse birth outcomes are of particular interest.ObjectiveTo test if participation in the Michigan statewide enhanced prenatal care program, the Maternal Infant Health Program (MIHP), accounting for program timing and dosage, reduced risk for low birth weight (LBW) and preterm birth,



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Prophylactic Use of a Probiotic in the Prevention of Colic, Regurgitation, and Functional Constipation A Randomized Clinical Trial

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportanceInfantile colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation are the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders that lead to referral to a pediatrician during the first 6 months of life and are often responsible for hospitalization, feeding changes, use of drugs, parental anxiety, and loss of parental working days with relevant social consequences.ObjectiveTo investigate whether oral supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 during the first 3 months of life can reduce



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Commercialism in US Elementary and Secondary School Nutrition Environments Trends From 2007 to 2012

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportanceSchools present highly desirable marketing environments for food and beverage companies. However, most marketed items are nutritionally poor.ObjectiveTo examine national trends in student exposure to selected school-based commercialism measures from 2007 through 2012.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsAnnual nationally representative cross-sectional studies were evaluated in US public elementary, middle, and high schools with use of a survey of school administrators.ExposuresSchool-base



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Comparison of High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation and Conventional Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Respiratory Failure

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportanceOutcomes associated with use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in children with acute respiratory failure have not been established.ObjectiveTo compare the outcomes of HFOV with those of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in children with acute respiratory failure.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsWe performed a retrospective, observational study using deidentified data obtained from all consecutive patients receiving mechanical ventilation aged 1 month to 18 years



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Effects of Caffeine on Intermittent Hypoxia in Infants Born Prematurely A Randomized Clinical Trial

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportancePreterm infants have immature respiratory control and resulting intermittent hypoxia (IH). The extent of IH after stopping routine caffeine treatment and the potential for reducing IH with extended caffeine treatment are unknown.ObjectivesTo determine (1) the frequency of IH in premature infants after discontinuation of routine caffeine treatment and (2) whether extending caffeine treatment to 40 weeks’ postmenstrual age (PMA) reduces IH.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsA prospective r



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Concussion Among Female Middle-School Soccer Players

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportanceDespite recent increased awareness about sports concussions, little research has evaluated concussions among middle-school athletes.ObjectivesTo evaluate the frequency and duration of concussions in female youth soccer players and to determine if concussions result in stopping play and seeking medical care.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsProspective cohort study from March 2008 through May 2012 among 4 soccer clubs from the Puget Sound region of Washington State, involving 351 elite f



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Effects of Child Development Accounts on Early Social-Emotional Development An Experimental Test

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportanceThis study, based on Oklahoma’s statewide Child Development Accounts (CDAs) program, presents findings from the first experimental test of the hypothesis that creating lifelong savings accounts for children at birth promotes their long-term well-being.ObjectiveTo examine the effects of CDAs, an innovative social policy to encourage lifelong saving and asset building for long-term development, on parent-reported social-emotional development in early childhood.Design, Setting, and Partic



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Celiac Disease A Review

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

Triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals, celiac disease is the most common genetically based food intolerance in the world, with a prevalence among approximately 1% of the general population. This enteropathy may appear at any age and is characterized by a wide variety of clinical signs and symptoms that go well beyond the gastrointestinal tract. In young children, gastrointestinal presentations are common and include chronic diarrhea, failure to thrive, and a



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Influence of School Competitive Food and Beverage Policies on Obesity, Consumption, and Availability A Systematic Review

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportanceThe US Department of Agriculture recently issued an interim final rule governing the sale of foods and beverages sold outside of the school meal programs (“competitive foods and beverages” [CF&Bs]).ObjectiveTo examine the potential influence that the federal rule may have based on peer-reviewed published studies examining the relationship between state laws and/or school district policies and student body mass index (BMI) and weight outcomes, consumption, and availability of CF&Bs.Evid





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Market Analysis of Vitamin Supplementation in Infants and Children Evidence From the Dietary Supplement Label Database

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

The Office of Dietary Supplements in concert with the National Library of Medicine recently created the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) to facilitate the scientific study of dietary supplement labels. The DSLD allows researchers to extract dietary supplement labels for research purposes. For example, the database may be used to assess label information to ensure that label information is truthful and accurate or to compare and contrast a large number of dietary supplements.



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Reducing Neonatal Mortality Are High-Coverage Women's Participatory Groups the Cost-effective Solution We Have Been Searching for?

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

To the Editor As a Gates grant recipient working on a technology to improve birth outcomes in low-resource environments, I welcome cost-effectiveness in community-based interventions. Unfortunately, after reading Fottrell et al, I am left with several thoughts. First, the claim that women’s group participation is a cost-effective intervention is exciting; however, the cost analysis is not explained, even minimally. One has to read the eAppendix even for basic information. Readers recognize that



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Reducing Neonatal Mortality—Reply

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

In Reply We thank Dr Klar for her comments. The presentation of cost-effectiveness in our article follows the concise norm for similar trial articles. The account in the eAppendix provides the essential details of the cost-effectiveness analysis. Further analysis of costs, including sensitivity analysis, will be submitted for publication to add to the growing evidence base for women’s groups interventions. We would like to correct an important misunderstanding of our evidence—we show that the in



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Circumcision Is a Religious/Cultural Procedure, Not a Medical Procedure

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

To the Editor Morris and Tobian note that parents are granted wide latitude in authorizing surgical procedures for their children. But that latitude is not unlimited and is fiduciary in nature. Fundamentally, male circumcision is a religious and cultural cosmetic procedure, not a valid medical procedure.



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Circumcision Is a Religious/Cultural Procedure, Not a Medical Procedure—Reply

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

In Reply Svoboda’s statements have been discredited previously. Since benefits of infant male circumcision (MC) vastly exceed risks, its persistence in diverse cultures worldwide likely reflects ritualization of a healthy practice, rather than it simply being “cosmetic.”



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Incorrect Information in Table

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

In the Original Investigation entitled “Violence, Crime, and Abuse Exposure in a National Sample of Children and Youth: An Update” published in the July 2013 issue of JAMA Pediatrics (2013;167[7]:614-621. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.42), incorrect information appeared. On page 616, in Table 1, the figures under “Last-Year Victimizations, %” for “Assault with weapon” should have been shown as follows: All Victims: 6.2; Male: 7.4; Female: 5.1; 0-1: 1.1; 2-5: 5.2; 6-9: 7.9; 10-13: 7.7; and 14-1



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Celiac Disease in Children and Adolescents

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

Celiac disease (CD) involves the inability for the small intestine to digest gluten, which is found in many grains such as wheat, barley, rye, buckwheat, or millet.



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JAMA Pediatrics

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

JAMA Pediatrics Vision: JAMA Pediatrics will be the most respected source of information for investigators, providers, and policy makers seeking the highest quality evidence to guide decision-making.


 

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