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Low-birth-weight children 'associated with lower academic outcomes'

from MNTpaeds - 02 Dec 14

Northwestern University researchers claim their study is the first to compare birth weight, children's cognitive education and quality of elementary and middle schools.



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Brain changes seen in high school football players after just one season

from MNTpaeds - 02 Dec 14

Some high school football players exhibit measurable brain changes after a single season of play even in the absence of concussion, according to a study presented at the annual meeting of the...



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Parenting a major factor in falls at home for children

from MNTpaeds - 02 Dec 14

A new study reports that the parents of children who fell from furniture at home are less likely to implement safety measures such as safety gates or rules about climbing at home.



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Link between antibiotics and childhood asthma called into question

from MNTpaeds - 02 Dec 14

Though previous studies have suggested a link between antibiotic use and childhood asthma, a new study in the BMJ dismisses this link by using sibling control analyses.



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CDC: over half of infants in the US sleep with 'hazardous bedding'

from MNTpaeds - 01 Dec 14

Despite current recommendations, a new study finds that more than 50% of infants in the US are placed to sleep with bedding that increases risks for sudden infant death.



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Toy-related injuries in US increase by 40%

from MNTpaeds - 01 Dec 14

A new study finds that between 1990-2011, the rate of toy-related injuries in children rose by 40% in the US, with foot-powered scooters to blame for most of this increase.



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Teens with a history of TBI are nearly 4 times more likely to have used crystal meth

from MNTpaeds - 01 Dec 14

Ontario students between Grades 9 and 12 who said they had a traumatic brain injury in their lifetime, also reported drug use rates two to four times higher than peers with no history of TBI...



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'Therapeutic reprogramming' may lead to treatment for epidermolysis bullosa, a blistering skin disease

from MNTpaeds - 01 Dec 14

Induced pluripotent stem cells made from patients with a form of blistering skin disease can be genetically corrected and used to grow back healthy skin cells in laboratory dishes, researchers at the...




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Ebola Virus Disease and Children What Pediatric Health Care Professionals Need to Know

from ArchPedi - 01 Dec 14

This Viewpoint discusses what pediatric health care professionals should consider when treating children presenting with signs and symptoms similar to Ebola virus disease.



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Comparative Effectiveness Research Ethical and Regulatory Guidance

from ArchPedi - 01 Dec 14

This Viewpoint addresses questions raised in the debate over whether the current US regulatory framework for governing protection of human research participants is an impediment to comparative effectiveness research.



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Using the Placebo Effect to Treat Cold Symptoms in Children

from ArchPedi - 01 Dec 14

Although it has been recognized for centuries, the concept of the placebo effect was brought to professional consciousness with the 1955 publication of “The Powerful Placebo.” In this seminal work, Beecher used a quasi–meta-analysis approach to estimate that 35.2% of patients had a satisfactory response to placebo for relief of pain. Despite limitations in design and more recent analyses calling these results into question, the study by Beecher is largely responsible for the commonly held percep



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Exercise and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents A Longitudinal Cohort Study

from ArchPedi - 01 Dec 14

ImportancePhysical activity (PA) may have a positive effect on depressed mood. However, whether it can act as a protective factor against developing depressive symptoms in adolescence is largely unknown.ObjectiveTo investigate the association between objectively measured PA and depressive symptoms during 3 years of adolescence.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsWe performed a longitudinal study between November 1, 2005, and January 31, 2010, of a community-based sample from Cambridgeshire and Suff



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Improvement in Preventive Care of Young Adults After the Affordable Care Act The Affordable Care Act Is Helping

from ArchPedi - 01 Dec 14

ImportanceThe 2010 Affordable Care Act (ACA) included expansion of insurance coverage for young adults and improved access to preventive care.ObjectiveTo examine the ACA’s initial effects on young adults’ receipt of preventive care.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsSecondary data analysis using a pre-post design that compared health care use by young adults (aged 18 to 25 years) from 2009 and 2011 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys. Data were collected through computer-assisted personal interviews



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Placebo Effect in the Treatment of Acute Cough in Infants and Toddlers A Randomized Clinical Trial

from ArchPedi - 01 Dec 14

ImportanceCough is one of the most common reasons why children visit a health care professional.ObjectivesTo compare the effect of a novel formulation of pasteurized agave nectar vs placebo and no treatment on nocturnal cough and the sleep difficulty associated with nonspecific acute cough in infants and toddlers.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsIn this randomized clinical trial performed in 2 university-affiliated outpatient, general pediatric practices from January 28, 2013, through February 2



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Validity and Responsiveness of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 Generic Core Scales in the Pediatric Inpatient Setting

from ArchPedi - 01 Dec 14

ImportanceValidated patient-reported outcomes responsive to clinical change are needed to evaluate the effectiveness of quality improvement interventions.ObjectivesTo evaluate responsiveness, construct validity, and predictive validity of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 4.0 Generic Core Scales in the pediatric inpatient setting.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsProspective, cohort study of parents and caregivers of patients 1 month to 18 years old (n?=?4637) and patients 13 to 18



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Associations Between Genetic Obesity Susceptibility and Early Postnatal Fat and Lean Mass An Individual Participant Meta-analysis

from ArchPedi - 01 Dec 14

ImportancePatterns of body size and body composition associated with genetic obesity susceptibility inform the mechanisms that increase obesity risk.ObjectiveTo test associations between genetic obesity susceptibility, represented by a combined obesity risk-allele score, and body size or body composition at birth to age 5 years.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsA total of 3031 children from 4 birth cohort studies in England, France, and Spain were included in a meta-analysis.ExposuresA combined o



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Bisphenol A Exposure and the Development of Wheeze and Lung Function in Children Through Age 5 Years

from ArchPedi - 01 Dec 14

ImportanceBisphenol A (BPA), a prevalent endocrine-disrupting chemical, has been associated with wheezing in children, but few studies have examined its effect on lung function or wheeze in older children.ObjectivesTo test whether BPA exposure is associated with lung function, with wheeze, and with pattern of wheeze in children during their first 5 years.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsA birth cohort study, enrolled during early pregnancy in the greater Cincinnati, Ohio, area among 398 mother-i



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Influence of Age at Virologic Control on Peripheral Blood Human Immunodeficiency Virus Reservoir Size and Serostatus in Perinatally Infected Adolescents

from ArchPedi - 01 Dec 14

ImportanceCombination antiretroviral therapy initiated within several weeks of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in adults limits proviral reservoirs that preclude HIV cure. Biomarkers of restricted proviral reservoirs may aid in the monitoring of HIV remission or cure.ObjectivesTo quantify peripheral blood proviral reservoir size in perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents and to identify correlates of limited proviral reservoirs.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsA cross-sectional



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Accuracy of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR) for Measuring Children’s Competence to Consent to Clinical Research

from ArchPedi - 01 Dec 14

ImportanceAn objective assessment of children’s competence to consent to research participation is currently not possible. Age limits for asking children’s consent vary considerably between countries, and, to our knowledge, the correlation between competence and children’s age has never been systematically investigated.ObjectivesTo test a standardized competence assessment instrument for children by modifying the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR), to investig



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Missed Opportunities for Pregnancy Prevention Among Insured Adolescents

from ArchPedi - 01 Dec 14

ImportanceBirth to a teenaged mother is associated with adverse health and social outcomes. Adolescents at risk for pregnancy may not receive needed reproductive health services at primary care visits.ObjectiveTo review services provided at outpatient visits in the year prior to pregnancy among adolescents in a US Midwestern integrated health care delivery system.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsRetrospective medical record review of continuously insured adolescents aged 15 to 19 years experienc



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Retinal Vessel Alterations and Cerebral White Matter Microstructural Damage in Obese Adolescents With Metabolic Syndrome

from ArchPedi - 01 Dec 14

ImportanceCerebral white matter (WM) damage has been reported in childhood obesity and in metabolic syndrome (MetS) but mechanisms remain unclear.ObjectivesTo ascertain whether adolescents with MetS have retinal vessel alterations and if the anticipated reductions in retinal arteriolar diameter are associated with diminished cerebral WM microstructural integrity and to test a model for vascular etiology of the WM abnormalities.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsCross-sectional study of the brain c



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Children and US Federal Policy on Health and Health Care Seen but Not Heard

from ArchPedi - 01 Dec 14

Children account for 73.5 million Americans (24%), but 8% of federal expenditures. Data on health and health care indicate that child well-being in the United States has been in decline since the most recent recession. Childhood poverty has reached its highest level in 20 years, 1 in 4 children lives in a food-insecure household, 7 million children lack health insurance, a child is abused or neglected every 47 seconds, and 1 in 3 children is overweight or obese. Five children are killed daily by




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Pain Terminology

from ArchPedi - 01 Dec 14

To the Editor I read with interest the Viewpoint recently published in JAMA Pediatrics expressing frustration with the term functional pain to describe the common scenario of chronic pain from unidentified causes. However, I question the author’s recommendation to change the name to primary pain disorder. Just because the cause of a symptom is unknown does not mean that it has no cause; absence of proof is not proof of absence. Diagnostic delay is common in complex illnesses and not all patients


 

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