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0

Prophylactic Use of a Probiotic in the Prevention of Colic, Regurgitation, and Functional Constipation A Randomized Clinical Trial

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportanceInfantile colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation are the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders that lead to referral to a pediatrician during the first 6 months of life and are often responsible for hospitalization, feeding changes, use of drugs, parental anxiety, and loss of parental working days with relevant social consequences.ObjectiveTo investigate whether oral supplementation with Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 during the first 3 months of life can reduce



0

Commercialism in US Elementary and Secondary School Nutrition Environments Trends From 2007 to 2012

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportanceSchools present highly desirable marketing environments for food and beverage companies. However, most marketed items are nutritionally poor.ObjectiveTo examine national trends in student exposure to selected school-based commercialism measures from 2007 through 2012.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsAnnual nationally representative cross-sectional studies were evaluated in US public elementary, middle, and high schools with use of a survey of school administrators.ExposuresSchool-base



0

Comparison of High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation and Conventional Mechanical Ventilation in Pediatric Respiratory Failure

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportanceOutcomes associated with use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) in children with acute respiratory failure have not been established.ObjectiveTo compare the outcomes of HFOV with those of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in children with acute respiratory failure.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsWe performed a retrospective, observational study using deidentified data obtained from all consecutive patients receiving mechanical ventilation aged 1 month to 18 years



0

Effects of Caffeine on Intermittent Hypoxia in Infants Born Prematurely A Randomized Clinical Trial

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportancePreterm infants have immature respiratory control and resulting intermittent hypoxia (IH). The extent of IH after stopping routine caffeine treatment and the potential for reducing IH with extended caffeine treatment are unknown.ObjectivesTo determine (1) the frequency of IH in premature infants after discontinuation of routine caffeine treatment and (2) whether extending caffeine treatment to 40 weeks’ postmenstrual age (PMA) reduces IH.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsA prospective r



0

Concussion Among Female Middle-School Soccer Players

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportanceDespite recent increased awareness about sports concussions, little research has evaluated concussions among middle-school athletes.ObjectivesTo evaluate the frequency and duration of concussions in female youth soccer players and to determine if concussions result in stopping play and seeking medical care.Design, Setting, and ParticipantsProspective cohort study from March 2008 through May 2012 among 4 soccer clubs from the Puget Sound region of Washington State, involving 351 elite f



0

Effects of Child Development Accounts on Early Social-Emotional Development An Experimental Test

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportanceThis study, based on Oklahoma’s statewide Child Development Accounts (CDAs) program, presents findings from the first experimental test of the hypothesis that creating lifelong savings accounts for children at birth promotes their long-term well-being.ObjectiveTo examine the effects of CDAs, an innovative social policy to encourage lifelong saving and asset building for long-term development, on parent-reported social-emotional development in early childhood.Design, Setting, and Partic



0

Celiac Disease A Review

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

Triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals, celiac disease is the most common genetically based food intolerance in the world, with a prevalence among approximately 1% of the general population. This enteropathy may appear at any age and is characterized by a wide variety of clinical signs and symptoms that go well beyond the gastrointestinal tract. In young children, gastrointestinal presentations are common and include chronic diarrhea, failure to thrive, and a



0

Influence of School Competitive Food and Beverage Policies on Obesity, Consumption, and Availability A Systematic Review

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

ImportanceThe US Department of Agriculture recently issued an interim final rule governing the sale of foods and beverages sold outside of the school meal programs (“competitive foods and beverages” [CF&Bs]).ObjectiveTo examine the potential influence that the federal rule may have based on peer-reviewed published studies examining the relationship between state laws and/or school district policies and student body mass index (BMI) and weight outcomes, consumption, and availability of CF&Bs.Evid





0

Market Analysis of Vitamin Supplementation in Infants and Children Evidence From the Dietary Supplement Label Database

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

The Office of Dietary Supplements in concert with the National Library of Medicine recently created the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD) to facilitate the scientific study of dietary supplement labels. The DSLD allows researchers to extract dietary supplement labels for research purposes. For example, the database may be used to assess label information to ensure that label information is truthful and accurate or to compare and contrast a large number of dietary supplements.



0

Reducing Neonatal Mortality Are High-Coverage Women's Participatory Groups the Cost-effective Solution We Have Been Searching for?

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

To the Editor As a Gates grant recipient working on a technology to improve birth outcomes in low-resource environments, I welcome cost-effectiveness in community-based interventions. Unfortunately, after reading Fottrell et al, I am left with several thoughts. First, the claim that women’s group participation is a cost-effective intervention is exciting; however, the cost analysis is not explained, even minimally. One has to read the eAppendix even for basic information. Readers recognize that



0

Reducing Neonatal Mortality—Reply

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

In Reply We thank Dr Klar for her comments. The presentation of cost-effectiveness in our article follows the concise norm for similar trial articles. The account in the eAppendix provides the essential details of the cost-effectiveness analysis. Further analysis of costs, including sensitivity analysis, will be submitted for publication to add to the growing evidence base for women’s groups interventions. We would like to correct an important misunderstanding of our evidence—we show that the in



0

Circumcision Is a Religious/Cultural Procedure, Not a Medical Procedure

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

To the Editor Morris and Tobian note that parents are granted wide latitude in authorizing surgical procedures for their children. But that latitude is not unlimited and is fiduciary in nature. Fundamentally, male circumcision is a religious and cultural cosmetic procedure, not a valid medical procedure.



0

Circumcision Is a Religious/Cultural Procedure, Not a Medical Procedure—Reply

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

In Reply Svoboda’s statements have been discredited previously. Since benefits of infant male circumcision (MC) vastly exceed risks, its persistence in diverse cultures worldwide likely reflects ritualization of a healthy practice, rather than it simply being “cosmetic.”



0

Incorrect Information in Table

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

In the Original Investigation entitled “Violence, Crime, and Abuse Exposure in a National Sample of Children and Youth: An Update” published in the July 2013 issue of JAMA Pediatrics (2013;167[7]:614-621. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.42), incorrect information appeared. On page 616, in Table 1, the figures under “Last-Year Victimizations, %” for “Assault with weapon” should have been shown as follows: All Victims: 6.2; Male: 7.4; Female: 5.1; 0-1: 1.1; 2-5: 5.2; 6-9: 7.9; 10-13: 7.7; and 14-1



0

Celiac Disease in Children and Adolescents

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

Celiac disease (CD) involves the inability for the small intestine to digest gluten, which is found in many grains such as wheat, barley, rye, buckwheat, or millet.



0

JAMA Pediatrics

from ArchPedi - 01 Mar 14

JAMA Pediatrics Vision: JAMA Pediatrics will be the most respected source of information for investigators, providers, and policy makers seeking the highest quality evidence to guide decision-making.



0

Lung-damaging molecule identified in higher concentrations in cystic fibrosis patients during symptom flare-ups

from MNTcf - 25 Feb 14

A molecule previously linked to lung injuries in factory workers producing microwave popcorn might play an important role in microbial infections of the lung suffered by people with cystic fibrosis (CF), according to a recent study led by San Diego State University postdoctoral researcher Katrine Whiteson.



2

Making drinking illegal before 21 saves lives

from MNTpaeds - 25 Feb 14

Although some advocates want to lower the legal drinking age from 21, research continues to show that the law saves lives. That's the finding of a new review published in a special supplemental issue to the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs.Researchers found that studies done since 2006 - when a new debate over age-21 laws flared up - have continued to demonstrate that the mandates work.



0

Some hospital infections reduced by computerized checklist

from MNTpaeds - 25 Feb 14

A computerized safety checklist that automatically pulls information from patients' electronic medical records was associated with a threefold drop in rates of one serious type of hospital-acquired infection, according to a study by researchers at the Stanford University School of Medicine and Lucile Packard Children's Hospital Stanford.



0

Policy statement suggests ways to improve drug safety and efficacy in children

from MNTpaeds - 25 Feb 14

With less than half of medications including specific labeling for children, Kathleen Neville, MD, MS, a physician at Children's Mercy Hospital, recently led an American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) committee in updating the policy with new recommendations guiding the off-label use of drugs in pediatric patients.



0

The use of maternal oxygen during labor: clinical opinion published

from MNTpaeds - 25 Feb 14

When a fetal heartbeat pattern becomes irregular during labor, many practitioners give oxygen to the mother. But questions remain whether this oxygen supplementation benefits the fetus or may actually be potentially harmful.



0

Cardiac function improved in mice with genetic heart defect

from MNTpaeds - 25 Feb 14

Congenital heart disease is the most common form of birth defect, affecting one out of every 125 babies, according to the National Institutes of Health. Researchers from the University of Missouri recently found success using a drug to treat laboratory mice with one form of congenital heart disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - a weakening of the heart caused by abnormally thick muscle.



0

Maternal acetaminophen use 'increases risk of offspring behavioral disorders'

from MNTpaeds - 25 Feb 14

New research suggests that children of mothers who use acetaminophen during pregnancy are much more likely to develop hyperkinetic disorders and behavioral problems associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, compared with children of mothers who do not use the pain-relieving drug during pregnancy.This is according to a study recently published in JAMA Pediatrics.


 

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